In the medium term, Poland will continue to rely on conventional energy carriers, like coal. The country, e.g., perceives potential for innovation in highly efficient coal-fired power plants which emit 25% less CO₂ and are independent of imports. Nonetheless, the country cannot escape the pressure for change observed in its neighbouring countries. For example, it is easily possible for excess wind energy from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania to be transported over the border to Poland and from there to be transported to southern Germany in the event of a bottleneck there. In order to prevent such unscheduled loop flows, the transmission system operators in Poland and Germany jointly operate so-called phase-shifting transformers on the border. This paves the way for more intense power trading. In future, it will also be possible to use the capacities on the cross-border interconnectors for trading transactions.
With the new energy act (which took effect in July 2016), Poland will also give renewable energies a chance. An auction system was introduced for bigger plants and the current renewable energy certificates are discontinued. Fixed feed-in rates for small plants of up to 10 kW are provided for a period of 15 years. This will, e.g., support so-called “prosumers” (consumer-generators). Even though there is a cap on the installation of new plants (800 MW) in Poland, this will be sufficient in order to promote the market for PV and biogas plants.